This appendix has explored the technologies currently in use in the PSTN. In Appendix B, Protocols for VoIP, we will discuss protocols for VoIP: the carrying of telephone connections across IP-based networks. These protocols define different mechanisms for carrying telephone conversations, but their significance is far greater than just that. Bringing the telephone network into the data network will finally erase the line between telephones and computers, which holds the promise of a revolutionary evolution in the way we communicate.